2 Karl Lehmann discussed various representations, for instance circular motifs with astrological symbols, representations of canopies of the sky supported by caryatids, and depictions of stars on a blue ground. Also Sermon 10.1 (vol. (ed. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents, This is a photo of a monument which is part of. It is like yeast which a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, until all of it was leavened’. 77 Most of our information for him comes from Agnellus's ninth-century Life, from whom the spiritual leader also received his epithet of ‘the golden orator’. See Mathews, T., ‘Cracks in Lehmann's dome of heaven’, Source: Notes in the History of Art 1 (1982), 12–16; Mathews, T., The Clash of the Gods: a Reinterpretation of Early Christian Art (Princeton, 1993), 143–50, for a critique of Lehmann, which pointed out that many of his sources are unreliable — that they are not actually extant vault decoration but dubious copies or descriptions, or schemes in other locations, which Lehmann hypothesized also existed in vaults. Small but yet impressive. https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-moscia-with-st-lawrence-or-st-vincent-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-80505232.html, Italy, Emilia Romagna, Ravenna, the mosaics of Mausoleo di Galla Placidia, mausoleum, https://www.alamy.com/italy-emilia-romagna-ravenna-the-mosaics-of-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-mausoleum-image241121424.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-byzantine-mosaics-in-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-by-the-basilica-167669959.html, https://www.alamy.com/the-good-shepherd-lunette-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-europe-image383527021.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaic-in-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-430-unesco-world-heritage-site-27216323.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaics-of-ravenna-italy-94630693.html, RAVENNA, ITALY - NOVEMBER 4, 2012: interior of Galla Placidia mausoleum in Ravenna city. See also Sermon 87 (vol. 230, 236–7. Published online by Cambridge University Press: URL: /core/journals/papers-of-the-british-school-at-rome. 1, p. 90)); Sermon 74 (vol. 1, p. 36): ‘Clearly, if the heavenly Father had not cast His rays upon the returning son's face, if He had not lifted the mist of his shame by the light streaming from His own glance, that son would never have seen God's brilliant face’. 1, p. 209). 4 Clauss, M., Mithras: Kult und Mysterien (Munich, 1990), 92–4. 60 Nordström, Ravennastudien (above, n. 24), 26; Ricci, C., ll mosaico di Galla Placidia in Ravenna (Rome, 1914), 70. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 1, p. 69). Another possible sixth-century example cited by Mackie (pp. https://www.alamy.com/ravenna-italy-january-28-2020-the-mosaics-in-the-early-christian-mausoleum-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-from-the-5-cent-image344906838.html. 53 Elsner, J., ‘Image and ritual: reflections on the religious appreciation of classical art’, Classical Quarterly 46 (1996), 515–31; Elsner, J., Art and the Roman Viewer (Cambridge, 1995), 88, 97. Vecto, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pattern-in-roman-style-ornament-on-ceiling-vaults-in-mausoleum-of-133804177.html, https://www.alamy.com/mosaics-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-ad450-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-image255630592.html, https://www.alamy.com/aerial-view-of-ravenna-with-the-rocca-brancaleone-castleon-a-gloomy-winter-morning-in-emilia-romagna-italy-image227240755.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ravenna-ravenna-province-italy-interior-of-the-5th-century-mausoleum-121619433.html. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, view of the interior. p. 21. 98 Chrysologus, Sermon 3 (vol. RAVENNA, ITALY - JANUARY 28, 2020: The mosaics in the early christian Mausoleum - Mausoleo di Galla Placidia from the 5. cent. 91 Chrysologus, Sermon 126.1 (vol. Ravenna. 23 Grabar, A., Martyrium, recherches sur le culte des reliques et I'art Chrétien antique II. 9 Perkins, A., The Art of Dura Europos (Oxford, 1973), 51 and plate 15; Kraeling, The Christian Building (above, n. 6), 44. Giannetti, Stefano For martyrs in heaven, see also Sermon 129 (vol. 3, pp. 159. 19 See Oost, S., ‘Some problems in the history of Galla Placidia’, Classical Philology 60 (1965), 1-10, esp. 22 von Simson, Sacred Fortress (above, n. 7), 46-51, explored this in relation to Sant'Apollinare in Classe. Ravenna, Ravenna Province, Italy. The Sophists hadmisled the philosophic spirit. D’Amico, Sara 34 Mackie, G., ‘New light on the so-called St. Lawrence Panel at the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna’, Gesta 29 (1990), 54–60; Mackie, Early Christian Chapels (above, n. 7), 185-91. Location: MAUSOLEO DE GALA PLACIDIA, RAVENA, ITALIA. 1, pp. Italy. The Good Shepherd lunette, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. 71 Poem 19 (Poems of St. Paulinus (above, n. 48), 131). 66 Trout, D., ‘Saints, identity and the city’, in Burrus, V. Chrysologus was very careful to dissociate stars from astrology, which he often denounces. He who thus shines throughout the world by the rays of his virtues so that he does not let himself be darkened by any night of vices, he will be brighter than the sun. Mosaic of The Good Shepherd, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ravenna-ravenna-province-italy-interior-of-the-5th-century-mausoleum-121619454.html, Italy Emilia Romagna Ravenna - Mausoleum of Galla Placidia - Mosaic of the vault, https://www.alamy.com/italy-emilia-romagna-ravenna-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-mosaic-of-the-vault-image366680760.html, Mosaico del il Buon Pastore Mausoleo di Galla Placidia World Heritage, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaico-del-il-buon-pastore-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-world-heritage-10065676.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaics-in-the-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-in-ravenna-38064439.html, Italy, Emilia Romagna, Ravenna, the mosaics of Mausoleo di Galla Placidia, mausoleum, https://www.alamy.com/italy-emilia-romagna-ravenna-the-mosaics-of-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-mausoleum-image241121424.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaics-from-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-ravenna-italy-24280266.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-with-its-byzantine-mosaics-in-ravenna-173382853.html, Detail of one of the very early mosaics dating to before AD 450 in the ancient chapel of the Mausoleo di Galla Placidia in th, https://www.alamy.com/detail-of-one-of-the-very-early-mosaics-dating-to-before-ad-450-in-image4926273.html, Ravenna, mausoleo di galla placidia, buon pastore (prima metà del V secolo), https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ravenna-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-buon-pastore-prima-met-del-v-secolo-147662307.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-the-historical-town-of-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-mausoleo-di-galla-168225096.html, https://www.alamy.com/ravenna-italy-5th-c-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-contains-the-earliest-image8614121.html. INTERIOR DEL MAUSOLEO DE GALA PLACIDIA - PAREDES REVESTIDAS DE MOSAICOS SIGLO V - SAN PEDRO Y SAN PABLO CON LA PALOMA. 'Martyrdom of St. Lawrence' mosaic inside the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna. 3, p. 181); Sermon 139.1 (vol. https://www.alamy.com/mausoleo-de-gala-placidia-edificado-hacia-el-ao-425-location-mausoleo-de-gala-placidia-ravena-italia-image344140919.html, mausoleo di gallia placidia, ravenna, emilia romagna, italy, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mausoleo-di-gallia-placidia-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-25197320.html, Mosaics in the Mausoleo di Galla Placidia in Ravenna showing ´The Good Shepherd´, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, https://www.alamy.com/mosaics-in-the-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-in-ravenna-showing-the-good-image61188776.html, Interieur van het mausoleum van Galla Placidia te Ravenna RAVENNA - Mausoleo di Galla Placidia L'interno (titel op object) Interior of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna - Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. See also Deichmann, , Ravenna II (above, n. 7), 84–6. 79 With reference to Saint Felicitas (Sermon 134: vol. 248-9). If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. Sermon 120 (vol. 227,137,175 stock photos, vectors and videos, Ravenna, Ravenna Province, Italy. 3, p. 278). Copyright complaints ~
MAUSOLEO DE GALA PLACIDIA EDIFICADO HACIA EL AÑO 425. 94 Sermon 78.3 (vol. 33-4)). 25 See Deichmann, , Ravenna I and II (above, n. 7) for a description of the iconography of these buildings; for a more recent study, see Wharton, A., Refiguring the Post-classical City: Dura Europos, Jerash, Jerusalem and Ravenna (Cambridge, 1995). 74 Elsner, J., Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph (Oxford, 1998), fig. Introduction to vol. As the brilliance of the sun lights up the sky, so He illumines the Church with the splendour of peace’. Abstract views reflect the number of visits to the article landing page. It is the earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments, and at the same time one of the most artistically perfect. 1875 - ca. It was designated as Unesco World Heritage. 3, p. 94). I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby publish it under the following license: (4,288 × 2,848 pixels, file size: 10.15 MB, MIME type: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0, Commons:Wiki Loves Monuments 2013 in Italy/Finalists, Progetto:Wiki Loves Monuments 2013/Finalisti2013, Utente:Caramellamenta/Finalisti 2014 Emilia Romagna, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Blackafied, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Galla_Placidia_(Interno_1).jpg&oldid=478763564, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (Ravenna) - Mosaics of the Apostles, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (Ravenna) - Interiors of arches, Images from Wiki Loves Monuments 2013 in Italy - Finalists, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (Ravenna) - Dome interior, Cultural heritage monuments in Italy with known IDs, Images from Wiki Loves Monuments 2013 in Italy, Images from Wiki Loves Monuments missing SDC depicts, Images from Wiki Loves Monuments missing SDC location of creation, Images from Wiki Loves Monuments missing SDC participant in, Images from Wiki Loves Monuments 2013 in Italy needing check, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Ieonographie (Paris, 1946), 194. Notwithstanding this, the broad derivation of the representation of stars on a blue ground from pre-Christian prototypes remains unproblematic. 17 Spinosa, G., ‘S. 86 Chrysologus, Sermon 5 (vol. He who mitigates this darkness not by any dimmed light, but banishes all the night by the strong brilliance of his merits, he will surely be more luminous than the moon. (ed. https://www.alamy.com/ravenna-italy-january-28-2020-the-mosaic-of-jesus-as-the-good-shepherd-in-the-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-from-the-5-cent-image344906612.html, Ravenna, Italy, Mausoleo di Galla Placidia, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ravenna-italy-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-133063115.html, mausoleo di galla placidia, ravenna, emilia romagna, italy, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-25197321.html, Mosaics in the Mausoleo di Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, https://www.alamy.com/mosaics-in-the-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-in-ravenna-emilia-romagna-image61082917.html, Italy Emilia Romagna Ravenna - Mausoleum of Galla Placidia - Lunette of San Lorenzo. Its star-spangled dome makes it beautiful … The source of devotion at its centre lends it brilliance, and in a remarkable way it both transforms the whole and is itself transformed’ (Poem 28 in The Poems of St. Paulinus of Nola (trans. EL BUEN PASTOR - (PASTORAL CELESTE)- MOSAICO PALEOCRISTIANO - SIGLO V. Location: MAUSOLEO DE GALA PLACIDIA, RAVENA, ITALIA. 88 Chrysologus, Sermon 160 (vol. See also sermon 81 (vol. 45 Grabar, Martyrium (above, n. 23), 111. 10 Jensen, M., ‘The Dura Europos synagogue, early Christian art, and religious life in Dura Europos’, in Fine, S. 1, p. 219): Selected Sermons: St. Peter Chrysologus, vol. Ornament on ceiling vaults in mausoleum of Galla Placidia. 169-70, 172-4, 176. (Title object) Property Type: photographs Item number: RP-F 00-8106 Inscriptions / Brands: number, recto: 'Pe Ia No 18108.' trooper92 wrote a review Oct 2020. For further references to Santa Maria della Croce and San Giovanni in Fonte, see also von Simson, O., Sacred Fortress: Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna (Princeton, 1987); Grabar, A., ‘L'iconographie du ciel dans l'art Chrétienné dans l'antiquité et du haut Moyen Âge’, Cahiers Archéologiques 30 (1982), 5–25; and Mackie, G., Early Christian Chapels in the West (Toronto, 2003). See Lehmann, K., ‘The dome of heaven’, Art Bulletin 27 (1945), 1-27, esp. Such commercial use includes, but is not limited to, use in (a) any form of advertising, and (b) any company name, logo, trademark, image, activity, or product. Another possible sixth-century example cited by Mackie (pp. Sermon 149 (vol. Your Lightboxes will appear here when you have created some. Interior of the 5th century mausoleum, Mausoleo di Galla Placidia. 51 von Simson, Sacred Fortress (above, n. 7), 58; see also Brown, Cult of the Saints (above, n. 22), 86-105. 29 Mackie, Early Christian Chapels (above, n. 7), 183. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. https://www.alamy.com/italy-ravenna-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-roman-building425-430-interior-st-lawrence-image352983951.html. Walsh, P.) (New York, 1975)). ), Lexicon Topographicum Urhis Romae II (D-G) (Rome, 1995), 285–95; Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture (Princeton, 1996), 197–213; Spannagel, M., Exemplaria Principis: Untersuchungen zu Entstehung und Ausstatung des Augustusforums (Heidelberg, 1999); Geiger, J., The First Hall of Fame: a Study of the Statues in the Forum Augustum (Leiden, 2008). Galla Placidia was a bright star of imperial nepotism in the twilight of the Roman Empire. January 405. The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is one of the most important early Christian monument and it was built during the first half of the fifth century in Ravenna. 69 Letter 23 (Letters of St. Paulinus (above, n. 45), 37). Byzantine floral pattern of circles on dark, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pattern-in-roman-style-ornament-on-ceiling-vaults-in-mausoleum-of-112383653.html, Mosaic, in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy, during the 5th century, showing a human figure, vines and lines, vintage engraved illustration. 64 Trout, D., ‘Damasus and the invention of early Christian Rome’, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 33 (3) (2003), 517–36. All’interno di questo spazio convivono 15 artisti etrogenei per formazione e linguaggio. Such images are regulated by Articles 106 et seq. 28 Mackie, Early Christian Chapels (above, n. 7), 181-2; Deichmann, , Ravenna II (above, n. 7), 81. https://www.alamy.com/ravenna-italy-february-05-2019-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-in-ravenna-detail-of-a-byzantine-mosaic-depicting-st-lawrence-image242366052.html. Interior of Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, a chapel embellished with colorful mosaics in Ravenna. Italy, https://www.alamy.com/interior-of-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-a-chapel-embellished-with-colorful-mosaics-in-ravenna-it-was-designated-as-unesco-world-heritage-italy-image243537779.html, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, AD450, Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, https://www.alamy.com/mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-ad450-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-image255630614.html. 32 Grabar, Martyrium (above, n. 23), 35-6; Nordström Ravennastudien (above, n. 24), 16. https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-central-vault-with-cross-and-starry-sky-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-80504170.html, https://www.alamy.com/italy-emilia-romagna-ravenna-the-mosaics-of-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-mausoleum-image241121470.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-byzantine-mosaics-in-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-by-the-basilica-167669957.html. 1, p. 78)). 13 Kraeling, The Christian Building (above, n. 6), 200, 224-5. Reproduction of this image is permitted for personal use or study. Late Ancient Christianity, The verse epitaph(s) of Petronius Probus: competitive commemoration in late fourthcentury Rome, Paulinus Noster: Self and Symbols in the Letters of Paulinus of Nola, The domed church as microcosm: literary roots of an architectural symbol, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068246200000866, Tagging sacred space in the Dura-Europos synagogue, Archaeologies and Agendas: Reflections on Late Ancient Jewish Art and Early Christian Art, Writing, Reading and Seeing Between the Lines, Abstract and vegetal design in the San Zeno chapel, Rome: the ornamental setting of an early medieval funerary programme. Italy, Ravenna, the mosaics of Galla Placidia mausoleum. 1 (trans. ), Monasticism and the Arts (Syracuse, 1984), 29–51. 1900 Physical characteristics: albumen print material: cardboard paper Technique: alb, https://www.alamy.com/interieur-van-het-mausoleum-van-galla-placidia-te-ravenna-ravenna-mausoleo-di-galla-placidia-linterno-titel-op-object-interior-of-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-in-ravenna-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-linterno-title-object-property-type-photographs-item-number-rp-f-00-8106-inscriptions-brands-number-recto-pe-ia-no-18108-collectors-mark-verso-stamped-lugt-3937-manufacturer-photographer-alinari-listed-property-place-manufacture-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-dating-ca-1875-ca-1900-physical-characteristics-albumen-print-material-cardboard-paper-technique-alb-image348456411.html. 73 Poem 19 (Poems of St. Paulinus (above, n. 48), 139). The fact that he appears to be moving out of the frame towards the viewer lends additional support to this premise, in line with Alfred Gell's theory on the agency of the image (Gell, A., Art and Agency (Oxford, 1998)). RAVENNA, ITALY - JANUARY 28, 2020: The mosaics in the early christian Mausoleum - Mausoleo di Galla Placidia from the 5. cent. ), Heaven on Earth: Art and the Church in Byzantium (Pennsylvania, 1998), 81-120, esp. 54 Elsner, Art and the Roman Viewer (above, n. 53), 210, discussed this in relation to another interior space for worship, the Mithracum. Detail of a Byzantine mosaic depicting St. Lawrence. 7 Qartmin (Tur Abdin, southeastern Turkey), in Hawkins, E. and Mundell, M., ‘The mosaics of the monastery of Ma'r Samuel, Ma'r Simeon and M'ar Gabriel near Kartmin’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973), 279–96; Santa Maria della Croce, Casaranello (a district of Casarano, Puglia, Italy) and San Giovanni in Fonte (baptistery to Santa Restituta, Naples), in Berchem, M. von and Clouzot, E., Mosaïques Chrétiennes du IVme au Xme siècle (Geneva, 1924); for Casaranello specifically, Castelfranchi, M. Falla, ‘Canosa nel VI sec. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. 1, p. 29) and also Sermon 3 (on the same subject) (vol. View this item in the original Europeana. 39 von Simson, Sacred Fortress (above, n. 7), 42-58; Grabar, ‘L'iconographie du ciel’ (above, n. 7) is more sceptical. truetrue, Afrikaans | Alemannisch | العربية | جازايرية | azərbaycanca | Bikol Central | беларуская | беларуская (тарашкевіца) | български | বাংলা | brezhoneg | català | čeština | Cymraeg | dansk | Deutsch | Zazaki | Ελληνικά | English | Esperanto | español | eesti | euskara | فارسی | suomi | français | Frysk | Gaeilge | galego | עברית | हिन्दी | hrvatski | magyar | հայերեն | Bahasa Indonesia | Ido | italiano | 日本語 | ქართული | 한국어 | Кыргызча | Lëtzebuergesch | latviešu | Malagasy | македонски | മലയാളം | Bahasa Melayu | Malti | norsk bokmål | नेपाली | Nederlands | norsk nynorsk | norsk | polski | português | português do Brasil | română | русский | sicilianu | davvisámegiella | slovenčina | slovenščina | shqip | српски / srpski | svenska | ไทย | Tagalog | Türkçe | українська | اردو | 中文 | 中文（中国大陆） | 中文（简体） | 中文（繁體） | 中文（香港） | 中文（台灣） | +/−. Location: MAUSOLEO DE GALA PLACIDIA, RAVENA, ITALIA. 1, p. 51). Incerti, Manuela Palardy, W.), vols 2 and 3 (Washington DC, 2005). The example found in the chapel of Sant'Andrea in the bishop's palace at Ravenna is a later reconstruction based on the ‘Mausoleum’ of Galla Placidia, as Gillian Mackie has noted (p. 111). Maria della Croce di Casaranello: analisi delle strutture architettoniche’, Arte Medievale 2 (2002), 149–64. General view of the interior of the mausoleum with Galla Placidia's sarcophagus in the middle, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (died 450), daughter of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, Ravenna, Italy (18905885094).jpg 3,264 × 4,928; 8.3 MB Ravenna, Emilia Romagna, Italy, Europe. 3, p. 32). https://www.alamy.com/interior-view-of-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-europeravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-europe-image383526743.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaic-in-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-430-unesco-world-heritage-site-27211800.html. 25. 42, dated January 22, 2004, and its subsequent amendments. https://www.alamy.com/interior-del-mausoleo-de-gala-placidia-paredes-revestidas-de-mosaicos-siglo-v-san-pedro-y-san-pablo-con-la-paloma-location-mausoleo-de-gala-placidia-ravena-italia-image209298329.html. The evidence from Mithraea (which Lehmann omitted) closes the chronological gap in the material that he discussed. Emilia-Romagna, Italy, https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-byzantine-mosaics-in-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-by-the-basilica-167669956.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ravenna-ravenna-province-italy-interior-of-the-5th-century-mausoleum-121619439.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-mosaics-in-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-unesco-world-heritage-site-72985496.html, https://www.alamy.com/mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-unesco-world-heritage-site-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-europe-image210884996.html, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-italy-ravenna-the-mosaics-of-galla-placidia-mausoleum-50692524.html. St. Lawrence. Lavoratti, Gaia Ravenna, Italy, February 05, 2019: Interior of mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Alamy and its logo are trademarks of Alamy Ltd. and are registered in certain countries. Byzantine mosaic and the alabaster window panel. Late Ancient Christianity (Minneapolis, 2005), 165-87, cited at p. 174. of the Italian Code of Cultural Heritage and Landscape under Legislative Decree No. Ganss, G.) (Washington DC, 1983). https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-martyrdom-of-st-lawrence-mosaic-inside-the-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-165035318.html, https://www.alamy.com/ravenna-italy-febuary-18-2016-interior-of-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-a-roman-chapel-embellished-with-colorful-roman-mosaics-in-ravenna-it-was-image179126302.html, painted ceiling mausoleum galla placidia in ravenna, italy, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-painted-ceiling-mausoleum-galla-placidia-in-ravenna-italy-52377798.html, https://www.alamy.com/ravenna-byzantine-mosaics-image227240662.html, https://www.alamy.com/interior-of-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-a-chapel-embellished-with-colorful-mosaics-in-ravenna-it-was-designated-as-unesco-world-heritage-italy-image243537783.html, Mosaics, mausoleum of Galla Placidia, AD450, Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, https://www.alamy.com/mosaics-mausoleum-of-galla-placidia-ad450-ravenna-emilia-romagna-italy-image255630562.html, Byzantine mosaics in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia by the Basilica of San Vitale. 1, p. 252): ‘Today, Christ, who is the King of peace, has come forth with His peace and routed all discord, banished dissensions, and dissipated conflicts. 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